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2015年全国各地研究生入学考英文试题-亚博官方网站

发布时间:2020-12-03    来源:亚博在线登录13597

本文摘要:Whenpublicopinionisparticularlypolarized,asitwasfollowingtheendoftheFrancoregime,monarchscanriseabove”mere”politicsand“embody”aspiritofnationalunity

研究生初试

二零一五年全国各地研究生研究生初试的英文考试已完成,我梳理了二零一五年考研英语一的考试真题考卷,可供众多试题参考。2015 年全国各地研究生入学考英文试题Section I Use of EnglishDirections:Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)We have more genes in common with people we pick to be our friends than with strangers.Though not biologically related, friends are as "related" as fourth cousins, sharing about 1% of genes. That is 1 a study published from the University of California and Yale University in theProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, has 2 .The study is a genome-wide analysis conducted 3 1932 unique subjects which 4 pairs of unrelated friends and unrelated strangers. The same people were used in both 5 .While 1% may seem 6 , it is not so to a geneticist. As co-author of the study James Fowler, professor of medical genetics at UC San Diego says, "Most people do not even 7 their fourth cousins but somehow manage to select as friends the people who 8 our kin."The team 9 developed a "friendship score" which can predict who will be your friend based on their genes.The study also found that the genes for smell were something shared in friends but not genes for immunity. Why this similarity in olfactory genes is difficult to explain, for now. 10 , as the team suggests, it draws us 11 similar environments but there is more to it. There could be many mechanisms working in tandem that 12 us in choosing genetically similar friends 13 "functional kinship" of being friends with 14 !One of the remarkable findings of the study was that the similar genes seem to be evolving 15 than other genes. Studying this could help 16 why human evolution picked pace in the last 30,000 years, with social environment being a major 17 factor.The findings do not simply corroborate people's 18 to befriend those of similar et 19 backgrounds, say the researchers. Though all the subjects were drawn from a population of European extraction, care was taken to 20 that all subjects, friends and strangers were taken from the same population. The team also controlled the data to check ancestry of subjects.1.[A] what [B] why [C] how [D] when2.[A] defended [B] concluded [C] withdrawn [D] advised3.[A] for [B] with [C] by [D] on4.[A] separated [B] sought [C] compared [D] connected5.[A] tests [B] objects [C] samples [D] examples6.[A] insignificant [B] unexpected [C] unreliable [D] incredi ble7.[A] visit [B] miss [C] know [D] seek8.[A] surpass [B] influence [C] favor [D] resemble9.[A] again [B] also [C] instead [D] thus10.[A] Meanwhile [B] Furthermore [C] Likewise [D] Perhaps11.[A] about [B] to [C] from [D] like12.[A] limit [B] observe [C] confuse [D] drive13.[A]according to [B] ratherthan [C] regardlessof [D] alongwith14.[A] chances [B] responses [C] benefits [D] missions15.[A] faster [B] slower [C] later [D] earlier16.[A] forecast [B] remember [C] express [D] understand17.[A] unpredictable [B] contributory [C] controllable [D] disruptive18.[A] tendency [B] decision [C] arrangement [D] endeavor19.[A] political [B] religious [C] ethnic [D] economic20.[A] see [B] show [C] prove [D] tellSection Ⅱ Reading ComprehensionPart ADirections:Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)Text1King Juan Carlos of Spain once insited” kings don’t abdicate, they die in their sleep.” But embarrassing scandals and the popularity of the republican left in the recenet Euro-elections have forced him to eat his words and stand down. So does the Spanish crisis suggest that monarchy is seeing its last days? Does that mean the writing is on the wall for all European royals, with their magnificent uniforms and majestic lifestyles?The Spanish case provides arguments both for and against monarchy. When public opinion is particularly polarized, as it was following the end of the Franco regime, monarchs can rise above” mere” politics and “embody” a spirit of national unity.It is this apparent transcendence of politics that explains monarchs continuing popularity as heads of state. And so, the Middle East excepted, Europe is the most monarch- infested region in the world, with 10 kingdoms (not counting Vatican City and Andorra).But unlike their absolutist counterparts in the Gulf and Asia, most royal families have survived because they allow voters to avoid the difficult search for a non-controversial but respected public figure.Even so, kings and queens undoubtedly have a downside. Symbolic of national unity as they claim to be, their very history-and sometimes the way they behave today-embodies outdated and indefensible privileges and inequalities. At a time when Thomas Piketty and other economists are warming of rising inequality and the increasing power of inherited wealth, it is bizarre that wealthy aristocratic families should still be the symbolic heart of modern democratic states.The most successful monarchies strive to abandon or hide their old aristocratic wa ys. Princes and princesses have day-jobs and ride bicycles, not horses(or helicopters). Even so, these are wealthy families who party with the international 1%, and media intrusiveness makes it increasingly difficult to maintain the right image.While Europe’s monarchies will no doubt be smart enough to survive for some time to come, it is the British royals who have most to fear from the Spanish example.It is only the Queen who has preserved the monarchy’s reputation with her rather ordinary (if well-heeled) granny style. The danger will come with Charles. Who has both an expensive taste of lifestyle and a pretty hierarchical view of the world. He has failed to understand that monarchies have largely survived because they provide a service- as non-controversial and non-political heads of state. Charles ought to know that as English history shows, it is kings, not republicans, who are the monarchy’s worst enemies.21.According to the first two paragraphs, King Juan Carlos of Spain[A] used to enjoy high public support[B] was unpopular among European royals[C] eased his relationship with his rivals[D] ended his reign in embarrassment22.Monarchs are kept as heads of state in Europe mostly[A] owing to their undoubted and respectable status[B] to achieve a balance between tradition and reality[C] to give voters more public figures to look up to[D] due to their everlasting political embodiment23.Which of the following is shown to be odd, according toParagraph 4?[A] Aristocrats’ excessive reliance on inherited wealth[B] The role of the nobility in modern democracies[C] The simple lifestyle of the aristocratic families[D] The nobility’s adherence to their privileges24. The British royals ”have most of fear” because Charles[A] takes a tough line on political issues[B] fails to change his lifestyle as advised[C] takes republicans as his potential allies[D] fails to adapt himself to his future role25.Which of the following is the best title of the text?[A] Carlos, Glory and Disgrace Combined[B] Charles, Anxious to Succeed to the Throne[C] Carlos, a Lesson for All European Monarchs[D] Charles, Slow to React to the Coming Threats.。


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